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Those new to vehicle design will have to learn model-based development, the basics of DVVP (Design, Verification, Validation Planning) skills, and the skills to design BMS, Motor controllers, andAdvanced energy storage systems, among other things.
But we also have many learners who are already working on internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle design. For both sets of learners, it is important to understand there are going to be certain key differences, and expectations have to be set that way.
That is why we have a section in our Applied EV Design & Integration course where we explain how electrification impacts vehicle specifications.
This is a short video from that course, where you will see comparisons of a car, three-wheeler, bus and truck that are available in petrol/diesel as well as electric models.
So here is an example of Tata Nexon, which is available in petrol, diesel and electric. All three versions. Let us look at the specs.
TATA Nexon EV Prime specifications
Motor (Type): Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Electric motor power (PS): 129*
Electric motor torque (Nm): 245 Nm
Drive modes: Multi Drive modes (Drive & Sport)
Battery pack: 30.2 kWh high energy density Lithium-ion battery pack
Thermal management system: Liquid cooled
Ingress protection for motor & battery pack: IP67
Acceleration (0-100 kmph in sec): 9.9**
Gradeability (%): 34%
Emission: Zero tailpipe emission
Single speed transmission for automatic like drive
Length x Width x Height (mm): 3993 x 1811 x 1606
Wheelbase (mm): 2498
Ground clearance (mm) - unladen: 205
Boot space (Litre): 350
Kerb weight (kg): 1400
Certified full charge range (as per MIDC Cycle): 312*
So your payload capacity is 410 kg. All three have the same payload capacity…have the same passenger carrying capacity of five. Yeah. Now if you look at energy consumption, it is derived from kilometers per liter on regulation cycle.
So you have 530.53 kilowatt hours per kilometer of fuel consumed - equivalent fuel consumed per kilometer for petrol diesel. It is 0.5 and electric. It is 0.1 kilowatt hour of battery energy being consumed per kilometer.
Onboard energy storage capacity: For petrol, you have a 44 liters tank which amounts to 3 91 kilowatt hour. Diesel, 44 liters again corresponds to 4 40 kilowatt hours of energy and battery capacity for electric is 30.2 kilowatt hours.
Battery life: Fuel tank life has no meaning in petrol and diesel. Battery life has, in terms of warranty, that Tata Motors provides is eight years or 100 and 60,000 kilometers, which is earlier.
Peak Gradeability: For petrol and diesel vehicles is 30%. For electric vehicles, it is 34%. So it is superior - slightly superior.
Peak speed: Petrol and diesel have 160 km/h max speed capability. Electric has 120 km/h.
Recharging time: You can see around 15 minutes to fill up the tank for petrol and diesel, and for electric minimum one hour at 1C fast charging. If you do fast charging, your battery life comes down drastically - if you do this frequently. Typically, they recommend a 2 to2.5 hours of charging time.
Similar analysis has been done for a three-wheeler loader. Piaggio Ape Extra is available in petrol and electric. In passenger…You have CNG, LPG and electric available again - Piaggio Ape City. In fact, in electric, you have in Piaggio Ape City, you have two versions. One is with swappable battery and one is with a fixed battery.
Piaggio Apé E-Xtra (Fixed Battery) EV specifications
Vehicle Category: L5N
Seating Capacity: Driver only
Battery: Lithium lon, 48V
Rated: 8 kWh
Peak Power: 9.55 kW @ 3500 rpm
Peak Torque: 45 Nm
Transmission Type: PT gear with differential (Integral)
Gross Vehicle Weight (With Batteries): 975 kg
Payload: 506 kg
Top Speed: 45 km/h
Typical Driving Range (On Road): 90 ± 5 kms
Charge Duration: 3 hours, 45 mins
Then this is a bus. Again - CNG, diesel and electric have been compared again. The parameters are all the same. You can look at how they vary across the ICE engine and the electric versions.
And this is a truck, a light truck, 7.5 tons against the CNG truck, diesel truck and electric truck.
So the primary motivation behind showing you all of this was - First of all, how electric vehicles stand up against ICE engine vehicles. It is important to understand there are going to be certain differences, key differences, and expectations have to be set that way.
It's not going to be that most of your customers are going to be reasonable. They will understand that electric vehicles at the moment have lesser range, and lesser maximum speed also, because you typically go for a simple single speed gearbox.